Sep 18, 2023 8 min read

How to Install Linux, Nginx, MySQL, and PHP on Ubuntu 22.04

Install LEMP on Ubuntu 22.04 with our step-by-step tutorial. LEMP is a popular web development stack that powers websites and applications.

Install Linux, Nginx, MySQL, and PHP on Ubuntu 22.04
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Before we begin talking about how to install LEMP on Ubuntu 22.04 OS, let’s briefly understand – What is LEMP?

LEMP is a popular web development stack that powers websites and applications. It stands for Linux, Nginx, MySQL, and PHP. Linux is the operating system, Nginx is the web server, MySQL is the database management system, and PHP is the scripting language.

LEMP offers a robust and efficient platform for hosting dynamic websites. It provides high performance, scalability, and security. With LEMP, developers can create and deploy powerful web applications that deliver a seamless user experience.

You’ll install LEMP on Ubuntu 22.04 in this tutorial. Also, we will answer some FAQs related to LEMP installation.

Advantages of LEMP

  1. Performance: LEMP stack is known for its high performance, handling heavy traffic efficiently.
  2. Scalability: It allows easy scaling of websites and applications to accommodate growing user demands.
  3. Security: LEMP offers strong security features to protect websites from various threats and vulnerabilities.
  4. Flexibility: LEMP provides flexibility to developers by supporting multiple programming languages and frameworks.
  5. Cost-effective: LEMP is an open-source stack, eliminating licensing costs and making it a cost-effective choice for web development.

Prerequisites to Install Linux, Nginx, MySQL, and PHP on Ubuntu 22.04

  • Ubuntu 22.04 64-bit operating system
  • A user account with sudo privileges
  • Command-line / terminal

Step 1 – Install the Nginx Web Server

1) Firstly, use the apt package-management suite to complete the necessary installations.

2) Update your server's package index and install the server.

sudo apt update
sudo apt install nginx -y

3) Nginx will start running upon installation.

4) After that, allow connections to Nginx. It registers itself with ufw after installation, so the procedure is rather straightforward.

5) Since there is no SSL certificate configured to allow traffic only on port 80. Do this by typing the command below:

sudo ufw allow 'Nginx HTTP'

6) Now, the change must be verified by running the following:

sudo ufw status

You will see the following output saying HTTP traffic is allowed.


Status: active

To                         Action      From
--                         ------      ----
OpenSSH                    ALLOW       Anywhere
Nginx HTTP                 ALLOW       Anywhere
OpenSSH (v6)               ALLOW       Anywhere (v6)
Nginx HTTP (v6)            ALLOW       Anywhere (v6)

7) Run the following command to know your server’s public IP address:

ip addr show eth0 | grep inet | awk '{ print $2; }' | sed 's/\/.*$//'

8) Now check which IP address is accessible, as viewed from other locations on the internet:

curl -4

9) You will be taken to Nginx's default landing page after typing the address you received in your web browser.


You must see the below image after the installation of Nginx.

Once this screen is visible, you can be sure that the Nginx is installed.

Step 2 - Install MySQL

1) By typing the below command, install MySQL:

sudo apt install mysql-server -y

2) Secondly, by typing Y, and then ENTER confirm the installation.

3) After that, run a security script that comes pre-installed with MySQL. As a result, insecure default settings and lockdown to access your database will be removed. Run the below command to start the interactive script:

sudo mysql_secure_installation

Now, you will be asked if you want to configure the VALIDATE PASSWORD PLUGIN.

If the passwords which you have set don't match the specified criteria then MySQL will reject it with an error. Leave the validation disabled and always use strong, unique passwords for database credentials.

4) Now, answer Y for yes, or anything else to continue without enabling.

VALIDATE PASSWORD PLUGIN can be used to test passwords
and improve security. It checks the strength of password
and allows the users to set only those passwords which are
secure enough. Would you like to setup VALIDATE PASSWORD plugin?

Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No:

5) If your answer is "yes", select a level of password validation.

There are three levels of password validation policy:

LOW    Length >= 8
MEDIUM Length >= 8, numeric, mixed case, and special characters
STRONG Length >= 8, numeric, mixed case, special characters and dictionary              file

Please enter 0 = LOW, 1 = MEDIUM and 2 = STRONG: 1

6) If you have selected 2 - the strongest level of validation, then you will get errors if you haven't added numbers, upper and lower case letters, and special characters.

7) Now, submit and confirm a root password:

Please set the password for root here.

New password:

Re-enter new password:

Similarly, press Y and hit the ENTER key at each prompt for the rest of the questions.

If you got stuck on password prompts, then exit out of it and alter the root password and set new in MySQL prompt using ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'your_password'; . After this relaunch secure installation and press n for change root password.

8) If you are using auth-socket plugin to access MySQL then you can skip the further steps and jump straight to Step 3. Switch authentication method from auth_socket to mysql_native_password to use a password when connecting MySQL as root. Open MySQL prompt from your terminal:

sudo mysql

9) Check different authentication methods by running the following command:

mysql> SELECT user,authentication_string,plugin,host FROM mysql.user;

You must see the following output:

| user             | authentication_string                     | plugin                | host      |
| root             |                                           | auth_socket           | localhost |
| mysql.session    | *THISISNOTAVALIDPASSWORDTHATCANBEUSEDHERE | mysql_native_password | localhost |
| mysql.sys        | *THISISNOTAVALIDPASSWORDTHATCANBEUSEDHERE | mysql_native_password | localhost |
| debian-sys-maint | *CC744277A401A7D25BE1CA89AFF17BF607F876FF | mysql_native_password | localhost |
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

10) Then, run the following ALTER USER command to configure the root account to authenticate with a password.

Make sure to change password to a strong password of your choosing:

mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'password';

11)After that, put new changes into effect by running FLUSH PRIVILEGES:


12) Now, using the auth_socket plugin check authentication methods employed by each of your users to confirm that root no longer authenticates:

mysql> SELECT user,authentication_string,plugin,host FROM mysql.user;

You must see the following output:

| user             | authentication_string                     | plugin                | host      |
| root             | *3636DACC8616D997782ADD0839F92C1571D6D78F | mysql_native_password | localhost |
| mysql.session    | *THISISNOTAVALIDPASSWORDTHATCANBEUSEDHERE | mysql_native_password | localhost |
| mysql.sys        | *THISISNOTAVALIDPASSWORDTHATCANBEUSEDHERE | mysql_native_password | localhost |
| debian-sys-maint | *CC744277A401A7D25BE1CA89AFF17BF607F876FF | mysql_native_password | localhost |
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

13) Finally, exit the MySQL shell:

mysql> exit
After configuring your root MySQL user to authenticate with a password, you’ll no longer be able to access MySQL with the sudo mysql command used previously. Instead, you must run the following: mysql -u root -p . After entering the password, you will see the MySQL prompt.

Step 3 – Install PHP and Configure Nginx to Use the PHP Processor

Now, you have Nginx that will serve the pages and MySQL that will store as well as manage your data. Now we need something that can generate dynamic data.

1) Firstly, install php-fpm, which stands for “fastCGI process manager” as PHP requests this software for processing

You will have to add Ubuntu's universe repository based on your cloud provider. It includes free and open-source software maintained by the Ubuntu Community. Before installing php-fpm type: sudo add-apt-repository universe

2) Secondly, allow PHP to communicate with your database backend by installing the php-fpm module along with an additional helper package, php-mysql using the following command:

sudo apt install php-fpm php-mysql -y

3) Now, to tell Nginx to use the PHP processor for dynamic content you must make a few configuration changes.

Do this by opening a new server block configuration file within the /etc/nginx/sites-available/ directory:

sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/

4) After that, include the following content which is slightly modified from the default server block configuration file to your new server block configuration file:

server {
        listen 80;
        root /var/www/html;
        index index.php index.html index.htm index.nginx-debian.html;

        location / {
                try_files $uri $uri/ =404;

        location ~ \.php$ {
                include snippets/fastcgi-php.conf;
                fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php/php8.1-fpm.sock;

        location ~ /\.ht {
                deny all;

Now, save and close the file.

5) Meanwhile, activate your new server block by creating a symbolic link from your new server block configuration file (in the /etc/nginx/sites-available/ directory) to the /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/ directory:

sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/ /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/

6) Now, un-link the default configuration file from the /sites-enabled/ directory:

sudo unlink /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default
If you ever need to restore the default configuration, you can do so by recreating the symbolic link, like this:
sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/default /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/

7) Now, it's time to test your configuration file for syntax errors:

sudo nginx -t

Continue further after zero errors.

8) Finally, reload Nginx to make the required changes:

sudo systemctl reload nginx

Step 4 – Create a PHP File to Test Configuration

1) Firstly, test your LEMP stack to validate that Nginx can correctly give .php files to the PHP processor.

  • Begin by creating a test PHP file called info.php in your document root:
sudo nano /var/www/html/info.php

2) Secondly, add the following text (which is valid PHP code) inside the blank file which is opened:


Save and close the file after you complete this process.

3) Test this script by accessing your server’s domain name or IP address, followed by the script name, which in this case is info.php in a web browser:


You must see a page similar to this:

Use the information displayed on this page for debugging and to ensure that your settings are being applied correctly.

4) Finally, remove the file you created as it contains sensitive information about your PHP environment and your Ubuntu server. You can use rm to do so:

sudo rm /var/www/your_domain/info.php

Now, you have a fully configured and functioning LEMP stack on your Ubuntu 22.04 server.

FAQs to Install LEMP on Ubuntu 22.04

What is the purpose of installing Linux, Nginx, MySQL, and PHP on Ubuntu 22.04?

Installing these components creates a LEMP stack, which provides a powerful web development environment for hosting dynamic websites and applications.

How can I test if Nginx is running correctly on Ubuntu 22.04?

Open a web browser and enter http://localhost or http://your_server_ip_address to see the default Nginx page, indicating that Nginx is running.

How can I test if MySQL is functioning properly on Ubuntu 22.04?

Access the MySQL command-line interface by running mysql -u root -p in the terminal. If successful, you will be prompted to enter your root password.

How do I check if PHP is installed and working on Ubuntu 22.04?

Create a PHP test file (e.g., test.php) with the code <?php phpinfo(); ?> and save it in the web server's root directory. Access it through a web browser, and if PHP is working, you'll see the PHP information page.

How do I start, stop, or restart the Nginx, MySQL, or PHP services on Ubuntu 22.04?

Use the commands sudo service nginx start/stop/restar, sudo service mysql start/stop/restart, and sudo service php7.4-fpm start/stop/restart respectively to manage the services.


We hope this detailed tutorial helped you understand how to install LEMP on your Ubuntu 22.04 machine.

If you have any queries, please leave a comment below, and we’ll be happy to respond to them for sure.

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